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Tombouctou dans la rébellion du Balama es-sadeq : un activisme contestataire au Songhoy (XVIe siècle) – Akiri
Akiri

Auteur.e.s

Jean Charles DÉDÉ

Tombouctou dans la rébellion du Balama es-sadeq : un activisme contestataire au Songhoy (XVIe siècle)

Résumé

Cet article analyse l’implication de la ville de Tombouctou dans la guerre fratricide qui a déchiré l’Empire songhoy, en avril 1588. Il s’interroge notamment sur les causes, les formes et les conséquences de cet engagement, en explorant la tradition orale songhoy et les Tarikhs de Tombouctou. Il rappelle, en effet, que faisant valoir des revendications autonomistes, l’élite dirigeante de Tombouctou a soutenu la rébellion du Balama Mohammed Es- Sadeq en mobilisant autour de sa personne et de son projet, des ressources symboliques pour légitimer sa royauté illégale. Elle lui a ensuite apporté une aide militaire substantielle en mettant à sa disposition les milices et les forces de sécurité locales. Malheureusement, quand, l’insurrection s’est effondrée, la ville a vu s’abattre sur elle, en guise de représailles, une terrible vague épuratoire qui décapita entièrement sa classe dirigeante et la ramena dans le giron de l’Empire.

Mots-clés : Empire songhoy – Tombouctou – Balama Mohammed Es-Sadeq – Askia – Épuration

Abstract

This article analyses the involvement of Timbuktu in the fratricidal war that tore the Songhoy Empire apart in April 1588. It examines the causes, forms and consequences of this involvement by exploring the Songhoy oral tradition and the Tarikhs of Timbuktu. He reminds us that the ruling elite of Timbuktu, making autonomous claims, supported the rebellion of the Balma’a Muhammad Es-Sadiq by mobilising symbolic resources around his person and his project to legitimise his illegal kingship. It then provided him with substantial military assistance by putting local militias and security forces at his disposal. Unfortunately, when the insurgency collapsed, the city was hit by a terrible wave of repression that decapitated its entire ruling class and brought it back into the fold of the Empire.

Keywords : Songhay Empire – Timbuktu – Balma’a Muhammad Es-Sadiq – Askiya – Purge